Contract Law Revision


Shaking hands, agreement in contract law


Contract Law Quiz

Test yourself on the principles of contract law.

This quiz selects 50 random questions from the Ipsa Loquitur Contract Law question bank, so the quiz will be different each time you take it. To take all the questions on a particular subject, visit that subject's revision page.


1 / 50

Complete this sentence: The defence of mistake renders the contract...

2 / 50

Kefka and Lenne enter into a business contract for the benefit of Celes, expressly granting her rights to sue for breach under the Contract (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999. The contract also provides that both Kefka and Lenne can rely on a particular exclusion clause if they are sued for negligence by Celes. Lenne breaches the contract in a way which triggers this exclusion clause. Can Celes succeed in a claim against Lenne?


3 / 50

On Saturday, Roger offers to sell Tyrone a car. He asks him to respond by next Thursday if he accepts. Tyrone sends Roger a letter by post on Monday agreeing to the deal, but it is lost in the post and never arrives. Has Tyrone accepted the offer?


4 / 50

Where a claim is made by a third party under the Contract (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999, which three defences can the defendant rely on?

5 / 50

The parties agree to a contract which makes provision for what will happen if a particular event happens. That event happens, and makes the contract impossible to perform. Does the defence of frustration apply?


6 / 50

How can an offeror validly withdraw their offer?

7 / 50

A claimant suing for breach of contract can claim both the market difference measure and the reliance loss measure at the same time. True or false?


8 / 50

How do the courts determine the meaning of an express term of the contract?

9 / 50

What must a third-party bank do to rid themselves of constructive notice of undue influence?

10 / 50

Which two of the following factors are relevant to whether a statement is an offer?

11 / 50

What three elements must an innocent party show to establish the defence of economic duress?

12 / 50

What are the two requirements of the defence of misrepresentation?

13 / 50

Joanie has established a presumption that her lawyer, Richard, influenced her when she sold her house to him. To establish undue influence, what does she need to do to show that the influence was undue?

14 / 50

When will the courts imply a term into a contract in fact? (Two answers)

15 / 50

In which of the three following circumstances would the defence of common mistake apply?

16 / 50

ABC Bank is advancing money to a debtor. An individual tells the bank that they wish to act as a guarantor or surety for that debt. The debtor has unduly influenced this individual. When is the bank taken to have constructive notice of the presence of undue influence in the transaction?

17 / 50

Promissory estoppel can be used to sue for damages or the recovery of payments where a party to a contract reneges on a promise not to enforce terms of the contract. True or false?


18 / 50

Alice contracts Bill to install new fans in her restaurant. Bill completes the work late, causing Alice considerable stress. Can Alice recover damages for her stress?


19 / 50

Dennis owes Maureen £1000. He asks her if she will discharge the debt if he pays her £500. Maureen agrees, because she needs the money to avoid being liable to a third-party and therefore thinks the arrangement is practically beneficial. Has Dennis provided consideration for Maureen's promise to accept the lesser amount?

20 / 50

Maisy enters into a contract over the phone with a man falsely claiming to be her long-lost cousin, John. In reality, Maisy does not have a long-lost cousin named John. Maisy later seeks to argue that she should not be bound by the contract, because she would not have entered into the contract had she known the man was not her cousin. Is the man's identity a vital term of the contract?

21 / 50

Xavier is a busy taxi driver who purchases a new car from Dodgy Dealers Inc. He signs their standard term car-purchase contract without reading it, not realising that it contains an onerous clause requiring him to pay a penalty fee if he gets the car serviced by anyone else within the first year. Can Xavier rely on the defence of non es factum to get out of the contract?


22 / 50

Does the claimant need to establish that but for the threat, they would not have entered into the contract if they are trying to prove duress to the person?


23 / 50

Dennis owes Maureen £1000. Dennis asks Maureen if she will discharge the debt if his sister Dee pays her £600. Maureen agrees. Has Dennis provided consideration for Maureen's promise to discharge the debt?

24 / 50

When is an exclusion or limitation clause unfair under the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977?

25 / 50

If a contract is voidable, can either party rely on its terms?

26 / 50

In which two scenarios can a person rely on the defence of undue influence against a third-party?

27 / 50

When the courts imply a term in law, they are seeking to give effect to the parties' intentions. True or false?


28 / 50

Kefka hires Lenne as an employee to help manage her business. The employment contract includes a clause stating that any breach of contract claim against Kefka may not include a claim for an injunction. Is this clause subject to the requirement of reasonableness under the Unfair Contract Clause Act 1977?

29 / 50

For an exclusion or limitation clause to be incorporated into a contract at common law, when must reasonable notice of the clause be given to the other party?

30 / 50

Joanie has established that a neighbour of hers, Richard, pressured her into selling her house to him. To establish undue influence, what does she need to do to show that the influence was undue?

31 / 50

Complete this sentence: The defence of illegality renders the contract...

32 / 50

In what four circumstances is an offer terminated without the offeror having to withdraw it?

33 / 50

What is the default measure of damages in contract?

34 / 50

Anderson purchases a train ride from Smith. Just before the contract is formed, Smith issues Anderson a receipt and a ticket, both of which have an exclusion clause on the front in large, bold letters. Anderson is not aware of there being any exclusion clause because he does not read either document. Is the exclusion clause part of the contract?

35 / 50

Kayleigh offers to sell Tom a crate of tomatoes. She asks him to respond by telephone if he accepts. Tom sends Kayleigh a letter accepting the tomatoes. Is this a valid acceptance?


36 / 50

Pierre agrees to rent a priceless painting from Sophie to display in his house, on condition that he first pay a deposit of several million. He has yet to pay the deposit. Sophie is now saying that she will refuse to hand over the painting. Can Pierre obtain an order for specific performance?


37 / 50

Which three factors indicate that a court should not imply a term in fact?

38 / 50

A person enters into a contract to sell a car, and later discovers the contract is voidable. However, before they can end the contract, they discover that the car has been destroyed. Can the contract be voided?


39 / 50

Under the Contract (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999, in what two scenarios can a third-party to a contract enforce the terms of that contract?

40 / 50

When are damages available for innocent misrepresentation?

41 / 50

What two conditions must be met before a transaction is void for unilateral mistake?

42 / 50

Alfred contracts with Zin to help deal with the communications side of his business. The contract between them states that Zin is not liable for damages resulting from her handling of messages 'howsoever caused'. Will the courts interpret this wording as expressly covering negligence?


43 / 50

Micah contracts with John for a package holiday. In breach of contract, John fails to make the appropriate reservations, leaving Micah stranded abroad without a hotel for several days. Micah suffers a severe stress reaction as a result. Can Micah recover damages for her emotional distress?


44 / 50

Stephen asks Jameel to help him find a venue for his up-coming book signing. Jameel finds the perfect place, and out of gratitude Stephen offers to give him £100 as a reward. He later changes his mind. Is Stephen bound to pay the money?


45 / 50

When is an exclusion or limitation clause unfair under the Consumer Rights Act 2015?

46 / 50

What is the doctrine of contra proferentem?

47 / 50

In what circumstances will the original parties no longer need to acquire the consent of the third party who has a right to sue under the Contract (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 to vary or terminate the contract?

48 / 50

The defence of frustration renders a contract voidable. True or false?


49 / 50

Julie is applying for an overdraft on a joint account controlled by herself and her husband Johan at ABC Bank. Her husband Johan offers to act as surety. The bank is unaware of the fact that Johan has been unduly influenced by Julie, but knows that the two are married. The overdraft is granted. Does the bank have constructive notice of the undue influence?


50 / 50

Can the innocent party prove that a misrepresentation caused them to enter the contract if they had the opportunity to verify the statement, but did not?


Your score is

Contract Mind Maps

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If you are a visual learner, these free printable mind-maps are a great way of learning and remembering the key principles of contract. They are available with or without cases. If you want them on a poster in large sizes, you can also purchase these online at the official Ipsa Loquitur Zazzle store.

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