Contract Law Revision


Shaking hands, agreement in contract law


Contract Law Quiz

Test yourself on the principles of contract law.

This quiz selects 50 random questions from the Ipsa Loquitur Contract Law question bank, so the quiz will be different each time you take it. To take all the questions on a particular subject, visit that subject's revision page.


1 / 50

Can undue influence be demonstrated in cases where the parties had no relationship prior to the transaction?

2 / 50

Marty purchases a package holiday from his friend Emmett. Emmett states that the contract will be agreed on his standard terms, and hands Marty a copy of these terms for him to read. On the front page, in large font and bold red letters, is an exclusion clause. Marty pretends to read it, but because he is illiterate, he does not understand any of it. Emmett knows that Marty is illiterate. Marty agrees to contract on the those terms. Has Emmett taken reasonable steps to give notice to Marty?


3 / 50

Alice contracts Bill to install new fans in her restaurant. Bill completes the work late, causing Alice considerable stress. Can Alice recover damages for her stress?


4 / 50

When is the hypothetical fee measure of damages available in contract?

5 / 50

How do the courts determine the meaning of an express term of the contract?

6 / 50

Frederick is Manuel's employee. One day, Frederick is told by Manuel that he needs him to take on some work which goes beyond his employment duties. Frederick is reluctant, but Manuel tells him that if he does it, Manuel will pay Frederick double. Frederick accepts. Has Frederick provided consideration for the extra payment?


7 / 50

Xavier is a busy taxi driver who purchases a new car from Dodgy Dealers Inc. He signs their standard term car-purchase contract without reading it, not realising that it contains an onerous clause requiring him to pay a penalty fee if he gets the car serviced by anyone else within the first year. Can Xavier rely on the defence of non es factum to get out of the contract?


8 / 50

In which three scenarios can an exclusion or limitation clause be incorporated into a contract at common law?

9 / 50

For the purposes of the defence of unilateral mistake, when can a term as to the quality of the goods be considered 'vital'?

10 / 50

What factors are relevant to whether the defence of illegality is established? (Four answers)

11 / 50

On Saturday, Roger offers to sell Tyrone a car. He asks him to respond by next Thursday if he accepts. Tyrone sends Roger a letter by post on Monday agreeing to the deal, but it is lost in the post and never arrives. Has Tyrone accepted the offer?


12 / 50

What are the 'trio of considerations' when establishing the defence of illegality?

13 / 50

What is the doctrine of contra proferentem?

14 / 50

The postal rule applies to any communications of assent to a contract by third parties under the Contract (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999. True or false?


15 / 50

For the purposes of unilateral mistake, when is a term 'vital' to the contract?

16 / 50

In which three scenarios must an exclusion or limitation clause satisfy the requirement of reasonableness under the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 before it can be enforced?

17 / 50

What is the parol evidence rule?

18 / 50

Darrel makes a contract with Pierre, agreeing that he will tend to Pierre's garden while Pierre is away. Instead of performing, Darrel goes on holiday. During this time, there is a freak storm which floods Pierre's garden and causes a lot of damage. Can Pierre obtain damages from Darrel for the damage to his garden?

19 / 50

Dennis owes Maureen £1000. He asks her if she will discharge the debt if he pays her £500. Maureen agrees, because she needs the money to avoid being liable to a third-party and therefore thinks the arrangement is practically beneficial. Has Dennis provided consideration for Maureen's promise to accept the lesser amount?

20 / 50

What two conditions must be met before a transaction is void for unilateral mistake?

21 / 50

Maisy enters into a contract with a man falsely claiming to be her long-lost cousin, John, while they are catching up at a restaurant. The contract is in writing and signed, and the man signed his name as 'John'. Maisy later seeks to argue that she should not be bound by the contract, because she would not have entered into the contract had she known the man was not John. Can Maisy rely on the defence of mistake in relation to the man's identity?

22 / 50

When should the doctrine of contra proferentem apply?

23 / 50

What two matters must the defendant prove to establish promissory estoppel?

24 / 50

Kayleigh offers to sell Tom a crate of tomatoes. She asks him to respond by telephone if he accepts. Tom sends Kayleigh a letter accepting the tomatoes. Is this a valid acceptance?


25 / 50

Which three factors indicate that a court should not imply a term in fact?

26 / 50

Are sums and benefits paid prior to an event which frustrates the contract recoverable?

27 / 50

For an exclusion or limitation clause to be incorporated into a contract by notice, the party relying on the term must have actually made the other party aware of it. True or false?


28 / 50

Maisy enters into a contract over the phone with a man falsely claiming to be her long-lost cousin, John. In reality, Maisy does not have a long-lost cousin named John. Maisy later seeks to argue that she should not be bound by the contract, because she would not have entered into the contract had she known the man was not her cousin. Is the man's identity a vital term of the contract?

29 / 50

A person enters into a contract to sell a car, and later discovers the contract is voidable. However, before they can end the contract, they discover that the car has been destroyed. Can the contract be voided?


30 / 50

At common law, can a third-party who did not provide consideration for a contract rely on the terms of that contract?

31 / 50

The defence of frustration renders a contract void. True or false?


32 / 50

In what two scenarios is a loss sufficiently non-remote to be recovered in an action for breach of contract?

33 / 50

David offers to sell Mary a house, representing that it has a conservatory. Mary relies on this representation when deciding to buy the house. Prior to the sale, there is a fire, and the conservatory burns down. David does not tell Mary. Can Mary rely on the defence of misrepresentation?


34 / 50

What two elements must the claimant show to obtain the cost of cure measure of damages?

35 / 50

Kefka and Lenne enter into a business contract for the benefit of Celes, expressly granting her rights to sue for breach under the Contract (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999. The contract also provides that both Kefka and Lenne can rely on a particular exclusion clause if they are sued for negligence by Celes. Lenne breaches the contract in a way which triggers this exclusion clause. Can Celes succeed in a claim against Lenne?


36 / 50

Annabelle tells the swim team she is coaching that she will give £500 to the first of them that swims the English Channel. Ricardo swims the English Channel the next day, and then calls Annabelle asking for the money. Is Annabelle obliged to pay him?


37 / 50

Sean offers to sell his collection of nerdy T-Shirts to Chris, for £40. Chris accepts, saying that his father will provide the money. Have Sean and Chris both provided consideration?


38 / 50

Hannah is applying for a loan for the family business. Her girlfriend Celestine tells the bank that she will act as surety for the loan. The money is to be advanced to a company which Hannah and Celestine hold joint shares in. The bank is aware that Celestine is Hannah's girlfriend and that she has shares in the company, but they are not aware that Hannah has unduly influenced Celestine. They grant the loan. Can Celestine rely on the defence of undue influence against the bank?

39 / 50

Laura contracts Stephen to arrange for someone to ghost-write her memoirs. For various reasons, it is not possible for Laura to obtain another person to do this. The relationship falls apart and Stephen refuses to perform. Writing the book in accordance with the contract would take time and require supervision. Can Laura obtain an order for specific performance?


40 / 50

The parties agree to a contract which stipulates that the defendant will not be paid until he performs his obligations in their entirety. Can this defendant be paid even though there is a breach of contract?

41 / 50

Alice contracts Bill to install new fans in her restaurant. Bill completes the work defectively, causing a fan to fall on Alice's head. She suffers a brain injury and develops depression as a result. Can Alice recover damages for her mental illness and emotional distress?


42 / 50

Richard offers to sell Michael a book. Richard knows that Michael believes that the book is signed by the author. Richard did nothing to make him believe this, but nor does he correct Michael. Michael relies on his belief that the book is signed when deciding to buy it. Can Michael rely on the defence of misrepresentation?


43 / 50

When the courts imply a term in law, they are seeking to give effect to the parties' intentions. True or false?


44 / 50

Which two of the following factors are relevant to whether a statement is an offer?

45 / 50

Kefka hires Lenne as an employee to help manage her business. The employment contract includes a clause stating that any breach of contract claim against Kefka may not include a claim for an injunction. Is this clause subject to the requirement of reasonableness under the Unfair Contract Clause Act 1977?

46 / 50

Promissory estoppel can be used to sue for damages or the recovery of payments where a party to a contract reneges on a promise not to enforce terms of the contract. True or false?


47 / 50

If a contract is void ab initio, can either party rely on its terms?

48 / 50

Complete this sentence: Damages are assessed according to the circumstances existing...

49 / 50

If the literal wording of an express term does not make commercial sense, the courts will intervene to make it more commercially efficient. True or false?


50 / 50

The parties in a case reached an agreement for the claimant to do some work, but that agreement was stated to be subject to contract. Despite a written contract never being signed, the parties have begun performing as if there were a contract. Do the terms of the 'subject to contract' agreement apply?

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