Contract Law Revision


Shaking hands, agreement in contract law


Contract Law Quiz

Test yourself on the principles of contract law.

This quiz selects 50 random questions from the Ipsa Loquitur Contract Law question bank, so the quiz will be different each time you take it. To take all the questions on a particular subject, visit that subject's revision page.


1 / 50

Bob offers to sell Arthur a wedding dress for $400. Arthur responds by asking if the veil is included for that price. What is the legal nature of Arthur's response?

2 / 50

On Saturday, Roger offers to sell Tyrone a car. He asks him to respond by next Thursday if he accepts. Tyrone sends Roger a letter by post on Monday agreeing to the deal, but it does not arrive until Friday. Has Tyrone accepted the offer?


3 / 50

When is a liquidated damages clause void under the penalty clause rule?

4 / 50

A claimant suing for breach of contract can claim both the market difference measure and the reliance loss measure at the same time. True or false?


5 / 50

Complete this sentence: The defence of undue influence renders the contract...

6 / 50

When establishing the defence of undue influence, how does the claimant demonstrate 'Type 2A' presumed influence?

7 / 50

Marty purchases a package holiday from his friend Emmett. Emmett states that the contract will be agreed on his standard terms, and hands Marty a copy of these terms for him to read. On the front page, in large font and bold red letters, is an exclusion clause. Marty pretends to read it, but because he is illiterate, he does not understand any of it. Emmett does not know Marty is illiterate. Marty agrees to contract on the those terms. Has Emmett taken reasonable steps to give notice to Marty?


8 / 50

What two matters must the defendant prove to establish promissory estoppel?

9 / 50

Hannah is applying for a loan for the family business. Her girlfriend Celestine tells the bank that she will act as surety for the loan. The money is to be advanced to a company which Hannah and Celestine hold joint shares in. The bank is aware that Celestine is Hannah's girlfriend and that she has shares in the company, but they are not aware that Hannah has unduly influenced Celestine. They grant the loan. Can Celestine rely on the defence of undue influence against the bank?

10 / 50

What are the three requirements of frustration?

11 / 50

Can the innocent party prove that a misrepresentation caused them to enter the contract if they had the opportunity to verify the statement, but did not?


12 / 50

What two conditions must be met for an agreement to be sufficiently certain to form a contract?

13 / 50

For an exclusion or limitation clause to be incorporated into a contract at common law, when must reasonable notice of the clause be given to the other party?

14 / 50

The parties in a case reached an agreement for the claimant to do some work, but that agreement was stated to be subject to contract. Despite a written contract never being signed, the parties have begun performing as if there were a contract. Do the terms of the 'subject to contract' agreement apply?

15 / 50

Richard offers to sell Michael a book. Richard knows that Michael believes that the book is signed by the author. Richard did nothing to make him believe this, but nor does he correct Michael. Michael relies on his belief that the book is signed when deciding to buy it. Can Michael rely on the defence of misrepresentation?


16 / 50

When will the courts imply a term into a contract in fact? (Two answers)

17 / 50

Jubedul lets his office know that he is selling his pet cat Bianca for £50, and that if anyone would like to buy her they should let him know. Liz, his co-worker, immediately calls his work phone and leaves a message on his answering machine saying she will buy the cat. Jubedul never listens to the message. An hour later, Micah tells Jubedul in person that she will buy the cat. Who has validly accepted Jubedul's offer to buy Bianca?

18 / 50

If a third party has gained the right to rely on a contract's terms under the Contract (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999, when do the original parties require their consent to vary or terminate the contract?

19 / 50

Rod advertises on a website saying he is looking to pay someone to look after his hamster for the weekend. Rosie responds, agreeing. The two draw up a written agreement, which includes a clause saying that it is binding in honour only. Is this agreement a valid contract?


20 / 50

John is a Government official who is under a duty to give a license to anyone who fills out the proper application form. Paul fills in the form and offers to give John £300 if he gets a license. John agrees. Have both parties provided consideration?


21 / 50

Clarence offers to sell Pam a table and chairs set for $300. He adds that if Pam does not respond to him within the week, he will assume that she has accepted. Pam does not respond within the week, nor does she positively indicate acceptance in any other way. Has Pam accepted the offer?


22 / 50

Alfred contracts with Zin to help deal with the communications side of his business. The contract between them states that Zin is not liable for damages resulting from her handling of messages 'howsoever caused'. Will the courts interpret this wording as wide enough to potentially cover negligence?


23 / 50

When establishing the defence of undue influence, how does the claimant demonstrate the category of presumed influence established in Malik (Deceased) v Shiekh?

24 / 50

In what four circumstances is an offer terminated without the offeror having to withdraw it?

25 / 50

When will the courts imply a customary term into a contract?

26 / 50

Emmy purchases a new fish tank filter from Lee. The filter is defective, and it shuts down. Emmy's incredibly rare and expensive fish die as a result. Lee argues that he should not be liable as it was unforeseeable that the breach would cause such a high degree of loss. Is he correct?


27 / 50

Complete this sentence: The defence of economic duress renders the contract...

28 / 50

Does the claimant need to establish that but for the threat, they would not have entered into the contract if they are trying to prove duress to the person?


29 / 50

When will the breach of an innominate term entitle the innocent party to terminate the contract?

30 / 50

When is the hypothetical fee measure of damages available in contract?

31 / 50

Where a claim is made by a third party under the Contract (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999, which three defences can the defendant rely on?

32 / 50

When can an offer be revoked?

33 / 50

Sean offers to sell his collection of nerdy T-Shirts to Chris, for £40. Chris accepts, saying that his father will provide the money. Have Sean and Chris both provided consideration?


34 / 50

When is an existing contract discharged? (Three answers)

35 / 50

Celestine is an elderly woman whose eye-sight is failing. Her niece, Laura, persuades her to sign a document claiming that it will authorise Laura to remove £50 for Celestine's bank account to enable her to pay Celestine's bills. In reality, it is a contract transferring Celestine's house to Laura. Celestine did not bother to read it as she trusts Laura (who has helped her out with bills before) and her eyesight makes reading very difficult. Can Celestine rely on the defence of non es factum?


36 / 50

Alice contracts Bill to install new fans in her restaurant. Bill completes the work defectively, causing a fan to fall on Alice's head. She suffers a brain injury and develops depression as a result. Can Alice recover damages for her mental illness and emotional distress?


37 / 50

Annabelle tells the swim team she is coaching that she will give £500 to the first of them that swims the English Channel. Ricardo swims the English Channel the next day, and then calls Annabelle asking for the money. Is Annabelle obliged to pay him?


38 / 50

Fatima is looking to sell an antique doll, which is worth £3000. Paul offers to buy it for £5. Fatima accepts, as she is in a hurry to get rid of the doll as it spooks her. Have both parties provided consideration?

39 / 50

What is the doctrine of contra proferentem?

40 / 50

Under the Contract (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999, in what two scenarios can a third-party to a contract enforce the terms of that contract?

41 / 50

In which three scenarios must an exclusion or limitation clause satisfy the requirement of reasonableness under the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 before it can be enforced?

42 / 50

What three elements must an innocent party show to establish the defence of economic duress?

43 / 50

Arthur contracts for a private car from Celestine, stressing that he needs to arrive before three o'clock. He does not explain the reason why, which is that if he is late he will miss a meeting with an important client and lose a valuable deal. Celestine drives painfully slowly and does not get Arthur to his destination on time. Arthur loses the deal. Can Arthur recover damages for the lost contract?


44 / 50

Phil makes a contract with Ingrid for his old shed to be torn down in exchange for £200. His next-door neighbour Andrew, who thinks the shed is an eye-sore, says he will pay Ingrid an extra £100 for taking down Phil's shed. Ingrid accepts and takes down the shed. Has Ingrid provided consideration for Andrew's promise?

45 / 50

In which two scenarios can a person rely on the defence of undue influence against a third-party?

46 / 50

Complete this sentence: Damages are assessed according to the circumstances existing...

47 / 50

In promissory estoppel, what three factors are relevant when determining whether it would be inequitable to renege on a promise?

48 / 50

In which of the three following circumstances would the defence of common mistake apply?

49 / 50

When establishing the defence of undue influence, how does the claimant demonstrate actual influence?

50 / 50

When the courts imply a term in law, they are seeking to give effect to the parties' intentions. True or false?


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