Contract Law Revision


Shaking hands, agreement in contract law


Contract Law Quiz

Test yourself on the principles of contract law.

This quiz selects 50 random questions from the Ipsa Loquitur Contract Law question bank, so the quiz will be different each time you take it. To take all the questions on a particular subject, visit that subject's revision page.


1 / 50

Marcus has shown that he reposed a large amount of trust in his partner, Adrian, when it comes to financial affairs. He also shows that his decision to transfer his inheritance to Adrian is a transaction which calls for explanation. To avoid the transfer being affected by the defence of undue influence, what must Adrian do to show that the influence was not undue?

2 / 50

Annabelle tells the swim team she is coaching that she will give £500 to the first of them that swims the English Channel. Ricardo swims the English Channel the next day, and then calls Annabelle asking for the money. Is Annabelle obliged to pay him?


3 / 50

When is a liquidated damages clause void under the penalty clause rule?

4 / 50

Under the Contract (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999, in what two scenarios can a third-party to a contract enforce the terms of that contract?

5 / 50

What are the three requirements of frustration?

6 / 50

When establishing that the defendant's influence was undue for the purposes of the defence of undue influence, the claimant must show that the transaction was manifestly to their disadvantage. True or false?


7 / 50

Stephen is struggling to find a venue for his up-coming book signing. Jameel decides to help him on his own initiative. Jameel finds the perfect place, and out of gratitude Stephen offers to give him £100 as a reward. He later changes his mind. Is Stephen bound to pay the money?


8 / 50

Kayleigh offers to sell Tom a crate of tomatoes. She asks him to respond by letter with his signature if he accepts. Tom sends Kayleigh a letter accepting the tomatoes, but does not sign it. Is this a valid acceptance?


9 / 50

Does the claimant need to establish that but for the threat, they would not have entered into the contract if they are trying to prove duress to the person?


10 / 50

Does a defence of duress to property exist?


11 / 50

Celestine is an elderly woman whose eye-sight is failing. Her niece, Laura, persuades her to sign a document claiming that it will authorise Laura to remove £50 for Celestine's bank account to enable her to pay Celestine's bills. In reality, it is a contract transferring Celestine's house to Laura. Celestine did not bother to read it as she trusts Laura (who has helped her out with bills before) and her eyesight makes reading very difficult. Can Celestine rely on the defence of non es factum?


12 / 50

When establishing the defence of undue influence, how does the claimant demonstrate 'Type 2A' presumed influence?

13 / 50

Maisy enters into a contract over the phone with a man falsely claiming to be her estranged cousin, John. Maisy later seeks to argue that she should not be bound by the contract, because she would not have entered into the contract had she known the man was not John. Is the man's identity a vital term of the contract?

14 / 50

Micah contracts with John for a package holiday. In breach of contract, John fails to make the appropriate reservations, leaving Micah stranded abroad without a hotel for several days. Micah suffers a severe stress reaction as a result. Can Micah recover damages for her emotional distress?


15 / 50

Which four factors indicate that an exclusion or limitation clause is reasonable under the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977?

16 / 50

Kefka and Lenne enter into a business contract for the benefit of Celes, expressly granting her rights to sue for breach under the Contract (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999. The contract also provides that both Kefka and Lenne can rely on a particular exclusion clause if they are sued for negligence by Celes. Lenne breaches the contract in a way which triggers this exclusion clause. Can Celes succeed in a claim against Lenne?


17 / 50

Dennis owes Maureen £1000. Dennis asks Maureen if she will discharge the debt if his sister Dee pays her £600. Maureen agrees. Has Dennis provided consideration for Maureen's promise to discharge the debt?

18 / 50

Rod advertises on a website saying he is looking to pay someone to look after his hamster for the weekend. Rosie responds, asking if they can meet up to negotiate terms. The two meet up and reach a written agreement, but the document states that it is 'subject to contract'. Is this agreement a valid contract?


19 / 50

The parties in a case reached an agreement for the claimant to do some work, but that agreement was stated to be subject to contract. Despite a written contract never being signed, the parties have begun performing as if there were a contract. Do the terms of the 'subject to contract' agreement apply?

20 / 50

Frederick is Manuel's employee. One day, Frederick is told by Manuel that he needs him to take on some work which goes beyond his employment duties. Frederick is reluctant, but Manuel tells him that if he does it, Manuel will pay Frederick double. Frederick accepts. Has Frederick provided consideration for the extra payment?


21 / 50

Anderson purchases a train ride from Smith. Just before the contract is formed, Smith issues Anderson a receipt and a ticket, both of which have an exclusion clause on the back. Smith asks Anderson to sign the back of the receipt and ticket, and Anderson does so without reading either document or noticing the exclusion clause. Is the exclusion clause part of the contract?

22 / 50

When the courts imply a term in law, they are seeking to give effect to the parties' intentions. True or false?


23 / 50

What factors indicate that an oral statement is a term of the contract? (Three answers)

24 / 50

Complete this sentence: The defence of economic duress renders the contract...

25 / 50

Julie is applying for an overdraft on a joint account controlled by herself and her husband Johan at ABC Bank. Her husband Johan offers to act as surety. The bank is unaware of the fact that Johan has been unduly influenced by Julie, but knows that the two are married. The overdraft is granted. Does the bank have constructive notice of the undue influence?


26 / 50

When is an exclusion or limitation clause unfair under the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977?

27 / 50

Which three factors indicate that a court should not imply a term in fact?

28 / 50

In promissory estoppel, what three factors are relevant when determining whether it would be inequitable to renege on a promise?

29 / 50

Dennis owes Maureen £1000. He asks her if she will discharge the debt if he gives her his car, which is worth £800. Maureen agrees because she loves the car. Has Dennis provided consideration for Maureen's promise to discharge the debt?

30 / 50

Ishtar contracts with Kefka to manage his employees, who are all former convicts convicted of violent offences. The contract between the parties contains an exclusion clause which states that Ishtar is not liable for any personal injury which Kefka suffers as a result of the actions of his employees. Is this clause enforceable?


31 / 50

What are the two requirements of the defence of misrepresentation?

32 / 50

When can a claimant obtain a consumer surplus award of damages?

33 / 50

Sean offers to sell his collection of nerdy T-Shirts to Chris, for £40. Chris accepts, saying that his father will provide the money. Have Sean and Chris both provided consideration?


34 / 50

The parties agree to a contract which makes provision for what will happen if a particular event happens. That event happens, and makes the contract impossible to perform. Does the defence of frustration apply?


35 / 50

When establishing the defence of undue influence, how does the claimant demonstrate the category of presumed influence established in Malik (Deceased) v Shiekh?

36 / 50

David induces Mary to enter into a contract to buy a car by promising that he will service the car before he gives it to her. He has no intention of doing so. Is this an actionable misrepresentation?


37 / 50

Promissory estoppel can be used to sue for damages or the recovery of payments where a party to a contract reneges on a promise not to enforce terms of the contract. True or false?


38 / 50

When establishing the defence of undue influence, how does the claimant demonstrate 'Type 2B' presumed influence?

39 / 50

Dennis owes Maureen £1000, and is obligated to pay by the 1st of June. He asks her if she will discharge the debt for £600, if he pays by the 1st of May. Maureen agrees. Has Dennis provided consideration for Maureen's promise to discharge the debt?

40 / 50

What kinds of clauses cannot be void for unfairness under the Consumer Rights Act 2015?

41 / 50

Bob offers to sell a wedding dress to Arthur for $400. Arthur says he is willing to buy the dress for $400, but only if Bob also includes a veil. Has Arthur accepted Bob's offer?

42 / 50

If a contract is void ab initio, can either party rely on its terms?

43 / 50

Can silence be an actionable misrepresentation?

44 / 50

Complete this sentence: Damages are assessed according to the circumstances existing...

45 / 50

A person enters into a contract to sell a car, and later discovers the contract is voidable. However, before they can end the contract, they discover that the car has been destroyed. Can the contract be voided?


46 / 50

A party to the contract purports to terminate the contract because of the defendant's breach. They give an invalid reason for terminating, but unbeknownst to them, the defendant has committed some other breach which entitles the innocent party to terminate. Is the innocent party in repudiatory breach because of their actions?

47 / 50

When are damages available for innocent misrepresentation?

48 / 50

What are the elements for determining whether a prohibitory injunction should be granted? (Three answers)

49 / 50

What two elements must the claimant show to obtain the cost of cure measure of damages?

50 / 50

ABC Bank is advancing money to a debtor. An individual tells the bank that they wish to act as a guarantor or surety for that debt. The debtor has unduly influenced this individual. When is the bank taken to have constructive notice of the presence of undue influence in the transaction?

Your score is

Contract Mind Maps

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If you are a visual learner, these free printable mind-maps are a great way of learning and remembering the key principles of contract. They are available with or without cases. If you want them on a poster in large sizes, you can also purchase these online at the official Ipsa Loquitur Zazzle store.