Criminal Law Revision

CRIMINAL LAW

Criminal law revision, prison bars

Condition Defences

Insanity

Automatism

Other Defences

Infancy


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Criminal Law Quiz

Test yourself on the principles of criminal law.

This quiz selects 50 random questions from the Ipsa Loquitur Criminal Law question bank, so the quiz will be different each time you take it. To take all the questions on a particular subject, visit that subject's revision page.

 

1 / 50

When determining whether a sober and reasonable person would have succumbed to a duress, what characteristics of the defendant is the hypothetical person given?

2 / 50

In which of the following situations is consent to a sex act irrebuttably presumed to be absent? (Two answers)

3 / 50

Roger learns that his brother Richard is being deported. He knows that the moment Richard lands in his home country, he will be murdered by corrupt government officials. Roger intentionally damages the plane that was set to deport Richard, giving Richard time to succeed in his asylum appeal. When charged with criminal damage, Roger argues he has lawful excuse, the government was acting in breach of international law by deporting Richard. Will this argument succeed?

 

4 / 50

In which of the following situations is consent to a sex act rebuttably presumed to be absent? (Five answers)

5 / 50

Harley is drunk, which leads her to believe that Arthur was signalling consent to sex with his body language. Arthur is not in fact consenting, but does not resist as he is afraid of Harley. When charged under section 4 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003, Harley argues that she had a reasonable belief in consent. Can her drunk state be taken into account?

 

6 / 50

What two elements must the prosecution establish to convict a defendant of an offence under section 20 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861?

7 / 50

Lacy burns down a house for insurance money, knowing that Eric is inside, tied to a bed and unable to escape. She claims she did not want Eric dead, but she knew he would certainly die and did not care enough to untie him first. Did Lacey intend to kill Eric?

 

8 / 50

Lucy, Theo and Marius were trapped in a sinking ship. To buy time pending the arrival of a rescue vessel, Lucy threw Theo overboard. Theo drowned. Lucy has been charged with murdering Theo. She proves that if she did not kill Theo, the ship would have sunk and she and Marius would have died. Can she rely on the defence of necessity?

 

9 / 50

What is grievous bodily harm?

10 / 50

For the purposes of theft, can there be an appropriation if the victim does not lose anything?

 

11 / 50

Harold is randomly stopped in the street, holding a perfectly ordinary-looking, sealed package. He is asked whether there are drugs inside. Harold answers that he is not certain, because the package is not his and he found it at a bus-stop. However, Harold also says that he thinks it is likely that the package contains drugs because the wood elves in his garden told him so, and they don't often lie. The package is full of cocaine. The police want to charge him with an offence which stipulates that the defendant has reasonable grounds to suspect they possess drugs. Does Harold meet this criteria?

 

12 / 50

What two elements must the prosecution prove to show assault?

13 / 50

Which of the following four scenarios are exceptions to the rule that bodily harm cannot be consented to?

14 / 50

For the purposes of theft, can a defendant be convicted for stealing property he owns?

 

15 / 50

Tyrion shoots an air-rifle at Circe. Circe is shot in the stomach. She is told by paramedics that she can be saved by a blood transfusion, but she refuses to consent because she is a Jehovah's Witness. She dies. Is Tyrion a legal cause of Circe's death?

 

16 / 50

Can the defence of self-defence be relied on if the defendant provoked the victim to attack?

17 / 50

What must the prosecution prove to establish factual causation?

18 / 50

Roger intentionally damages a piece of government property (a coal-burning oven) while protesting climate change. When charged with criminal damage, he argues he has lawful excuse, because climate change is destroying the planet and he needs to draw attention to the issue. Will this defence succeed?

 

19 / 50

Celestine owes her drug dealer, Mia, a lot of money. On Sunday night, Mia tells her that if Celestine does not pay her back by Monday morning she will kill her daughter. Celestine tells her she does not have the money, so Mia tells her to mug Richard as he carries a lot of money on him at all times. Celestine tries to get help from the police, but they tell her they do not believe her. Celestine robs Richard, but is caught soon after and arrested. Can Mia rely on the defence of duress?

 

20 / 50

The prosecution is trying to establish unlawful act manslaughter against the defendant. While the defendant admits to committing the unlawful act, they argue that their unlawful act was not directed against the victim, but against the victim's property. The defendant foresaw that the victim might be injured by his act. Are the prosecution likely to succeed?

 

21 / 50

Paul knowingly makes a statement to Joanne, attempting to get Joanne to give him money. The statement is true and Paul believes it is true, but later it becomes false and he discovers this. Joanne hands over the money after Paul has discovered the fact is now false. Has Paul committed fraud by non-disclosure?

 

22 / 50

Harley has vaginal sex with Arthur. She knows that he is not consenting. Which offence has Harley committed?

 

23 / 50

What two things must a person be able to do to consent to a sexual act?

24 / 50

Laura has severe depression. Peter makes fun of her, telling her if she is so depressed she should go kill herself. She has a fit of anger and kills him. At trial for murder, she relies on the defence of loss of control. Can the jury take into account her depression when assessing whether the defence is established?

25 / 50

Atticus gets extremely drunk at a party, and commits an offence as a result. He claims the alcohol made him act involuntarily, and advances the defence of automatism. Will his defence succeed?

 

26 / 50

For the purposes of gross negligence manslaughter, what factors are relevant to determining whether the negligence was gross?

27 / 50

What must the prosecution demonstrate to show one of the sexual offences against children under 16?

28 / 50

Murder is a crime of specific intent. True or false?

 

29 / 50

Harley has a psychotic disorder, which leads her to believe that Arthur was awake and asked her to have sex with him. In reality, Arthur is unconscious and did not consent. When charged under section 4 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003, Harley argues that she had a reasonable belief in consent. Can her mental disorder be taken into account?

 

30 / 50

Section 20 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861 is a crime of specific intent. True or false?

 

31 / 50

What four elements does the prosecution need to show to establish gross negligence manslaughter?

32 / 50

Dee is charged with an offence with a mens rea of negligence. Which of her special characteristics can be attributed to the reasonable person?

33 / 50

Alfred is a doctor treating Zin, a comatose patient. He turns off her life support machine, and she dies due an inability to breathe unassisted. Has Alfred killed Zin by an act or an omission?

34 / 50

People are under a duty to retreat rather than use force in self-defence is they are able. True or false?

 

35 / 50

Michael threatens Adrian that he will reveal sensitive information if Adrian does not have sex with him. Has Michael committed blackmail?

36 / 50

Assault is a crime of specific intent. True or false?

 

37 / 50

When establishing the elements of assault occasioning actual bodily harm, the prosecution must prove that the defendant foresaw or intended actual bodily harm. True or false?

 

38 / 50

For the purposes of the offence of possessing articles for fraud, the prosecution must prove the defendant had a specific future fraud in mind. True or false?

 

39 / 50

Is the defence of necessity available to an offence of strict liability?

 

40 / 50

What three elements must the defendant show to rely on the defence of automatism?

41 / 50

In which three circumstances specified by the Theft Act 1968 will a defendant not be considered dishonest?

42 / 50

What is the age of criminal responsibility in England and Wales?

43 / 50

Daphne is a doctor who is treating Gillian for a terminal disease. Gillian is in considerable pain and asks for morphine. Daphne agrees and gives him a dose which causes him to die several days before he would otherwise. When questioned by police, she says she was just trying to help his pain and did not want him to die, though she knew that it was certain that he would. Has Daphne committed murder?

44 / 50

When establishing the defence of duress, what three elements must exist before the impact of the threat on the defendant is considered sufficient?

45 / 50

Celestine is driving when she feels the onset of a hypoglycemic episode. She is not able to pull over in time before the episode starts. She is barely in control of her body, but is able to move the steering wheel a little and as a result is able to avoid hitting pedestrians. She eventually collides with a tree. Can Celestine rely on the defence of automatism in relation to any criminal offence she is charged with?

46 / 50

For the purposes of constructive manslaughter, can a defendant rely on mistaken beliefs they possess?

 

47 / 50

The defendant borrows the victim's month-long movie pass, intending to give it back after it has expired. Is is possible to convict the defendant of theft?

48 / 50

For the purposes of theft, is there an appropriation if the defendant has the owner's permission to interact with the property?

49 / 50

What are the two elements of the defence of persons defence?

50 / 50

For the purposes of the Theft Act offences, when is a piece of property 'appropriated'?

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Criminal Law Mind Maps

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If you are a visual learner, these free printable mind-maps are a great way of learning and remembering the key principles of criminal law. If you want them on a poster in large sizes, you can also purchase these online at the official Ipsa Loquitur Zazzle store.


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