Criminal Law Revision


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Other Defences



Criminal Law Quiz

Test yourself on the principles of criminal law.

This quiz selects 50 random questions from the Ipsa Loquitur Criminal Law question bank, so the quiz will be different each time you take it. To take all the questions on a particular subject, visit that subject's revision page.


1 / 50

Michael threatens Adrian that he will reveal sensitive information if Adrian does not have sex with him. Has Michael committed blackmail?

2 / 50

What two elements must the prosecution establish to convict a defendant of an offence under section 18 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861?

3 / 50

A defendant is on trial for murder. They are relying on the defence of loss of control. Part of the reason they killed the victim is that they discovered the victim was cheating on them. Can the jury take this into account?

4 / 50

Camilla is fed up with her partner, Adrian. She deliberately winds them up to let off some steam. She knows there is a risk that Adrian will become seriously violent if she does this, but is past the point of caring. When Adrian becomes violent, Camilla draws a knife and stabs them. Does Camilla have a qualifying trigger for when she tries to establish the defence of loss of control?


5 / 50

What three elements must the defendant show to establish loss of control?

6 / 50

Harley is drunk, which leads her to believe that Arthur was signalling consent to sex with his body language. Arthur is not in fact consenting, but does not resist as he is afraid of Harley. When charged under section 4 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003, Harley argues that she had a reasonable belief in consent. Can her drunk state be taken into account?


7 / 50

Can a defendant be convicted of destroying or damaging property with intent to endanger life if no-one's life is actually endangered?


8 / 50

What two elements must the prosecution prove to show assault?

9 / 50

Sally agrees with Mandy and Thomas that the three will rob a bank. On the way to the bank, Sally gets cold feet. She tells Mandy and Thomas that she has changed her mind, and leaves. Mandy and Thomas rob the bank. Can Sally be convicted of being an accessory to Mandy and Thomas' offences?


10 / 50

Jessie knows that Ash is a serial killer. She hopes to get her own back on her brother James, and encourages Ash to kill James when he next goes hunting. Ash agrees. One night, Ash coincidentally encounters James, but does not recognise him. Ash murders James. Can Jessie be convicted as an accessory to James' murder?


11 / 50

Theresa is a primary school teacher, and smacks a student when she misbehaves. It does not leave any marks or cause any harm. Theresa is charged with battery. She argues that she was engaging in reasonable chastisement. Is this a defence to this offence?


12 / 50

In which three circumstances specified by the Theft Act 1968 will a defendant not be considered dishonest?

13 / 50

In which of the following situations is consent to a sex act rebuttably presumed to be absent? (Five answers)

14 / 50

Richard has sex with Theresa. She does not feel in the mood, but she does not object, move or otherwise indicate this. Did she consent to sex?


15 / 50

For the purposes of theft, is there an appropriation if as part of the appropriating act the defendant acquires indefeasible property in the object?


16 / 50

To be convicted of attempting to commit an offence, what mens rea must the defendant have?


17 / 50

The definition of 'touching' requires contact with or pressure on the victim's skin. True or false?


18 / 50

Kristen and John decide to steal from Laura. They approach her in the street, hoping to grab her handbag. They decide that John will take the bag, while Kristen will help him escape. Just as John is reaching out to take the bag, Kristen changes his mind and decides that he does not want to be part of this. What must Kristen do to avoid being liable as an accessory?


19 / 50

Theresa enters Richard's house, intending to steal his jewellery. Once inside, she becomes concerned that Richard may still be in the building so she picks up a knife from the kitchen. Should Theresa be charged with ordinary burglary or aggravated burglary?

20 / 50

Cameron agrees to supply tools to allow Richard and Michael to break into a jewellery store and steal its contents. Cameron secretly thinks the other two are idiots, and that there is no chance that their plan will succeed. He is charged with conspiracy to commit burglary. Is he guilty?

21 / 50

Yuna gives Tidus a box which she tells him contains a gift for Lulu. She does not tell him that she put a bomb in the box, and hopes that opening it will kill Lulu. Tidus gives the gift to Lulu. Lulu opens the box, and is killed in the explosion. Should Yuna be convicted as an accessory to murder?


22 / 50

What two elements must the prosecution prove to show battery?

23 / 50

For the purposes of the offence of possessing articles for fraud, the prosecution must prove the defendant had a specific future fraud in mind. True or false?


24 / 50

Theresa is trying to break into a building. She uses a screwdriver to break a window, and during this process the screwdriver enters the building, but no part of Theresa's body does. For the purposes of establishing burglary, has Theresa entered the building?


25 / 50

Battery is a crime of basic intent. True or false?


26 / 50

The prosecution is seeking to establish the offence of burglary. For the purposes of showing that the defendant entered the building, the prosecution must show that the defendant was sufficiently within the building to commit the offence. True or false?


27 / 50

Section 20 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861 is a crime of specific intent. True or false?


28 / 50

What three elements must a defendant show to establish diminished responsibility?

29 / 50

Can a drunk person consent to a sexual act?

30 / 50

Elsie steals a necklace from a store, and exchanges it for a bicycle. Is the bicycle stolen property?


31 / 50

Omar takes prescription medicine for depression. One day, he has a rare reaction to the medicine which causes him to involuntarily commit a criminal offence. The prosecution argue that he cannot rely on the defence of automatism, because he voluntarily took the medicine which caused the automatism. Will this argument succeed?


32 / 50

What four elements must the prosecution prove to establish sexual assault?

33 / 50

What four elements must the prosecution prove to establish assault by penetration?

34 / 50

Daphne is a doctor who is treating Gillian for a terminal disease. Gillian is in considerable pain and asks for morphine. Daphne agrees and gives him a dose which causes him to die several days before he would otherwise. When questioned by police, she did what she did because she thought it would be better if Gillian died, given he was in so much pain. Has Daphne committed murder?

35 / 50

What must the prosecution demonstrate to show one of the sexual offences against children under 16?

36 / 50

Psychiatric illness cannot constitute grievous bodily harm. True or false?


37 / 50

Can the defence of self-defence be relied on where the force is used pre-emptively?

38 / 50

What is the age of criminal responsibility in England and Wales?

39 / 50

Tyrion shoots an air-rifle at Circe. Circe is shot in the stomach. She is told by paramedics that she can be saved by a blood transfusion, but she refuses to consent because she is a Jehovah's Witness. She dies. Is Tyrion a legal cause of Circe's death?


40 / 50

What must the prosecution prove to establish factual causation?

41 / 50

Harold is randomly stopped in the street, holding a perfectly ordinary-looking, sealed package. He is asked whether there are drugs inside. Harold answers that he is not certain, because the package is not his and he found it at a bus-stop. However, Harold also says that he thinks it is likely that the package contains drugs because the wood elves in his garden told him so, and they don't often lie. The package is full of cocaine. The police want to charge him with an offence which stipulates that the defendant has reasonable grounds to suspect they possess drugs. Does Harold meet this criteria?


42 / 50

Paul knowingly makes a statement to Joanne, believing it to be false and attempting to fool Joanne into giving him money. She hands over the money. The statement just happens to be true. Has Paul committed an offence?

43 / 50

Roger intentionally damages a piece of government property (a coal-burning oven) while protesting climate change. When charged with criminal damage, he argues he has lawful excuse, because climate change is destroying the planet and he needs to draw attention to the issue. Will this defence succeed?


44 / 50

If the defendant does the actus reus against one person, but had the mens rea with respect to another person, is this sufficient to show an offence?


45 / 50

Katy makes a false statement to Arnau, believing it to be true and trying to persuade Arnau to give her money. It would be obvious to a reasonable person that the statement was false. Has Katy committed fraud by false representation?


46 / 50

Is the defence of necessity available to an offence of strict liability?


47 / 50

Which two are qualifying triggers for the loss of control defence?

48 / 50

Celia falls out of the window of her 8th storey apartment. When she passes the 4th storey window, she is hit by a bullet fired by William and killed instantly. It was certain that Celia would have died on hitting the ground. Did William cause Celia's death?


49 / 50

The prosecution is trying to establish unlawful act manslaughter against the defendant. While the defendant admits to committing the unlawful act, they argue that their unlawful act was not directed against the victim, but against the victim's property. The defendant foresaw that the victim might be injured by his act. Are the prosecution likely to succeed?


50 / 50

What three elements must the prosecution prove to establish intentionally causing sexual activity?

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