Paul knowingly makes a statement to Joanne, attempting to get Joanne to give him money. The statement is true and Paul believes it is true, but later it becomes false and he discovers this. Joanne hands over the money after Paul has discovered the fact is now false. Has Paul committed fraud by non-disclosure?
Incorrect. The defendant commits fraud by failure to disclose if they dishonestly fail to disclose information to another person when they are under a legal duty, intending by this to make a gain for himself or another, or to cause another a loss, or to expose another to the risk of loss: Fraud Act 2006, s 3(1).