Criminal Law Revision


Criminal law revision, prison bars

Condition Defences



Other Defences



Criminal Law Quiz

Test yourself on the principles of criminal law.

This quiz selects 50 random questions from the Ipsa Loquitur Criminal Law question bank, so the quiz will be different each time you take it. To take all the questions on a particular subject, visit that subject's revision page.


1 / 50

What two elements must the prosecution establish to convict a defendant of an offence under section 18 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861?

2 / 50

For the purposes of the defence of insanity, a disease of the mind may be caused by any internal or external trigger. True or false?


3 / 50

Leo is trying to escape a burning building. The only way out is up a ladder, but that ladder is being blocked by Gareth. Gareth is frozen in fear and cannot move out of the way to let Leo pass, nor can he move up the ladder. Because they will both die if Leo does nothing, Leo pulls Gareth off the ladder, causing him to fall to his death. He is later charged with Gareth's murder. Is the defence of necessity available to him?


4 / 50

Roger intentionally damages a piece of government property (a coal-burning oven) while protesting climate change. When charged with criminal damage, he argues he has lawful excuse, because climate change is destroying the planet and he needs to draw attention to the issue. Will this defence succeed?


5 / 50

Murder is a crime of specific intent. True or false?


6 / 50

Psychiatric illness cannot constitute grievous bodily harm. True or false?


7 / 50

For the purposes of blackmail, what is 'menaces'?

8 / 50

The defendant dishonestly tricks the victim into writing him a cheque. The defendant provided consideration. The defendant has taken the cheque but not cashed it. What has the defendant stolen?

9 / 50

For the purposes of the fraud offence, when is a statement false?

10 / 50

Patrick teaches a form of high-speed, high intensity dancing. There is a known risk that dancers may be injured during these dances. During a dance, Yula accidentally kicks Patrick in the chest, causing a rib to break. She is charged with an offence under section 20 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861. Can she rely on the defence of consent?


11 / 50

Harold goes to Ricardo's house, and explains that he is showing men how to check for testicular cancer. Ricardo accepts a demonstration, and during this demonstration, Harold touches Ricardo's leg. In reality, Harold is merely trying to prank Ricardo. When Harold is charged with battery, he argues that Ricardo consented to the touching. Is Ricardo's consent a defence?


12 / 50

Tyrion shoots an air-rifle at Circe. Circe is shot in the stomach. She is told by paramedics that she can be saved by a blood transfusion, but she refuses to consent because she is a Jehovah's Witness. She dies. Is Tyrion a legal cause of Circe's death?


13 / 50

Can a defendant be convicted of destroying or damaging property with intent to endanger life if no-one's life is actually endangered?


14 / 50

What must the prosecution prove to establish factual causation?

15 / 50

For the purposes of the Theft Act offences, when is a piece of property 'appropriated'?

16 / 50

A defendant is on trial for murder. They are relying on the defence of loss of control. Part of the reason they killed the victim is that they discovered the victim was cheating on them. Can the jury take this into account?

17 / 50

Which four factors are relevant to whether the property has been 'damaged' for the purposes of criminal damage?

18 / 50

Elsie steals a necklace from a store, and exchanges it for a bicycle. Is the bicycle stolen?


19 / 50

Daphne is a doctor who is treating Gillian for a terminal disease. Gillian is in considerable pain and asks for morphine. Daphne agrees and gives him a dose which causes him to die several days before he would otherwise. When questioned by police, she did what she did because she thought it would be better if Gillian died, given he was in so much pain. Has Daphne committed murder?

20 / 50

Josephine commits a crime involuntarily because of a hypoglycemic episode. Which defence would you advise her to rely on?

21 / 50

Margaret shoots a gun at Robert, intending to kill him. She misses and destroys a window. Could she be successfully prosecuted for destroying the property with intent to endanger life?


22 / 50

Harley has vaginal sex with Arthur. She knows that he is not consenting. Which offence has Harley committed?


23 / 50

Can a pure opinion be a representation for the purposes of fraud?


24 / 50

Camilla wants to kill her partner, Adrian. She deliberately winds them up, knowing that it will cause them to become violent. When Adrian become violent, Camilla draws a knife and stabs them. Camilla tells police that Adrian is normally very seriously violent when they start a fight. Does Camilla have a qualifying trigger for when she tries to establish the defence of loss of control?


25 / 50

Laura has severe depression. Peter makes fun of her, telling her if she is so depressed she should go kill herself. She has a fit of anger and kills him. At trial for murder, she relies on the defence of loss of control. Can the jury take into account her depression when assessing whether the defence is established?

26 / 50

Yulia shoots Mia in the abdomen, causing Mia to miscarry her child. Yulia intended to kill Mia. Has Yulia committed murder against the baby?


27 / 50

Theresa smacks her three-year-old daughter when she misbehaves. It leaves a bruise, and Theresa is charged with assault occasioning actual bodily harm. She argues that she was engaging in reasonable chastisement. Is this a defence to this offence?

28 / 50

Theresa enters Richard's house, intending to steal his jewellery. Once inside, she encounters Richard, and panics, picking up a nearby knife. Should Theresa be charged with ordinary burglary or aggravated burglary?

29 / 50

For the purposes of the offence of threats to destroy or damage property, must the victim interpret the defendants actions as a threat?


30 / 50

For the purposes of the offence of possessing articles for fraud, the article must have only illegal functions. True or false?


31 / 50

Rachel owns a house which she rents out to young families. There is no one living in it at the moment as she is having the kitchen renovated. During the period in which the house is empty, it is burgled by John. Is the building a dwelling?


32 / 50

Yulia shoots Mia in the abdomen, causing Mia to go into early labour. The child is born alive, but dies a few days due to complications from the premature birth. Yulia intended to kill Mia. Has Yulia committed murder against the baby?


33 / 50

Harold decides to steal from Richard's house. He is let into the building by Richard's daughter Yula, who is in love with him. Yula lives in the house, but does not own or occupy it. Can Harold be convicted of burglary?

34 / 50

What two elements must the prosecution prove to show battery?

35 / 50

Lacy burns down a house for insurance money, knowing that Eric is inside, handcuffed to a bed and unable to escape. She claims she did not want Eric dead. However, she says she thought that it was very likely that he would die, as she cannot remember whether the key to the handcuffs was left close enough for Eric to reach. Did Lacey intend to kill Eric?


36 / 50

To establish the mens rea of burglary, the prosecution must show that:

37 / 50

What three elements must the prosecution prove to establish rape?

38 / 50

Caleb is a prison officer who works transferring violent and unstable prisoners between institutions. During one transfer, one of the prisoners, Dale, commits battery against Caleb. At trial, Dale argues that Caleb consented to the touching since he knew the risks involved in the job and took that risk. Will Dale's consent defence succeed?


39 / 50

What additional element must the prosecution show to establish aggravated burglary (as opposed to normal burglary)?

40 / 50

What four elements does the prosecution need to show to establish gross negligence manslaughter?

41 / 50

When is a person legally considered dead?

42 / 50

Can a drunk person consent to a sexual act?

43 / 50

Alfred is a doctor treating Zin, a comatose patient. He turns off her life support machine, and she dies due an inability to breathe unassisted. Has Alfred killed Zin by an act or an omission?

44 / 50

The actus reus and mens rea of an offence do not need to coincide. True or false?


45 / 50

When does a person 'possess' property for the purposes of theft?

46 / 50

What is grievous bodily harm?

47 / 50

What three elements must the defendant show to rely on the defence of automatism?

48 / 50

Katy makes a false statement to Arnau, believing it to be true and trying to persuade Arnau to give her money. It would be obvious to a reasonable person that the statement was false. Has Katy committed fraud by false representation?


49 / 50

What three elements must be shown to establish the defence of necessity?

50 / 50

Which of the following would be classed as actual bodily harm?

Your score is

Criminal Law Mind Maps

criminal law mind map green
criminal law mind map grey
criminal law mind map purple

If you are a visual learner, these free printable mind-maps are a great way of learning and remembering the key principles of criminal law. If you want them on a poster in large sizes, you can also purchase these online at the official Ipsa Loquitur Zazzle store.

Donate to Ipsa Loquitur

Your support helps us keep Ipsa Loquitur running and up-to-date with fun and useful revision materials. If this site has helped you, consider buying the administrators a cup of coffee!